Keller’s Brand Equity Model

Based on the Keller’s Brand Equity Model where it is stated that “in order to build a strong brand, you must shape how customers think and feel about your product. You have to build the right type of experiences around your brand, so that customers have specific, positive thoughts, feelings, beliefs, opinions, and perceptions about it”.

According to this, and thanks to the strong brand equity of these two brands, it is easy to identify the most important adjectives related to the brand, as seen in the Keller’s Pyramid shown below:





Posted by: Carolina Castellanos S., Quentin Fruy, Charlotte Fernet, Alexandre Quéméré, Alya Marrakchi


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Brand Extension

Brand Extension:

The Brand extension is commonly used by well-known brands that use their image to launch new varieties of their products in order to satisfy different needs of their current consumers as well as to gain new ones. This strategy is also implemented when a new trend is being developed in the market and to enlarge the brand’s awareness.

In the Cola market, Coca Cola and Pepsi have both been very active in this matter. They have taken advantage of their brand equity and launched several variations of their regular products in terms of flavors and ingredients. The brand stretching with not only the highest impact in sales but also the oldest attempt of widen the brand’s portfolio has been diet or light products, that still today continues to be updated with new versions thanks to the health concerns both brands have acquired as seen previously in the blog and trying to respond to an ever increasing demand of consumers for healthier products.

The rivalry between Coca Cola and Pepsi is evident as well in this field, where being the first to develop an idea is very important and usually the other brand responds to this initiatives by launching a similar product.

Let’s take a look to the most important examples of brand extension for Coca Cola and Pepsi!

Coca Cola:

–         Coca Cola Light/Diet Coke: are both the same product but with different names because in some countries the word “Diet” doesn’t mean low-calorie. It is a sugar and calorie free soft drink that was developed in the United States in 1982, and was the first brand extension of Coca-Cola. It was launched as a respond to the Diet Pepsi that was launched in 1964 and was acquiring great relevance in the market. The sweetener mix used for the product changes among countries due to different consumer preferences

diet coke

–         Coca Cola Zero: introduced in 2005 within the low calories segment and its main target are men, because they tend to link Diet and Light to women. It is intended to be the same taste as the Coca Cola Classic, while Coca Cola Light/Diet Coke has a different formula. Is sweetened with a blend of low-calorie sweeteners, while Diet Coke is sweetened with aspartame


–         Coca-Cola Cherry, Diet Cherry and Zero Cherry: it was launched in 1985 and was the third variation of the brand. Then, in 1986 thanks to a successful performance Diet Cherry Coke was introduced and in 2007 was added Coca-Cola Cherry Zero


–         Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla and Diet: it was launched in 2006 but due to low sales it was then discontinued in 2007

black cherry

–         Coca Cola with Lime: released in 2005 as a respond to the consumer’s request but it hasn’t been very successful in several countries where it was discontinued. Has been a limited edition in many countries but in others like Singapore and Netherlands is a regular product


–        Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet and Zero: introduced in 1983 as a response to Pepsi Free that was having notorious results. The diet version was the first extension of the Diet Coke

cffei coke

–         Vanilla Coke: released in 2002 to compete with Pepsi Vanilla but it didn’t have a good performance. In 2007 it was relaunched in the US and in the UK in 2013, where it was supposed to be a limited edition but thanks to a better sales behavior it stood as a regular product

vani coke

–         Coca Cola Life: Launched in 2013 in Argentina as a pilot test, has 108 calories per bottle which is less than the half of calories of a Classic Coke, using Stevia as a sugar substitute. This innovative product claims to be green and natural as sold in a recyclable bottle that is made from 30% plant-based materials



–         Diet / Light Pepsi: Introduced in 1964 to attack the current competitor Tab produced by The Coca Cola Company that was an innovative Cola in the Low Calories segment. Nowadays it is one of the main products of the Pepsi Portfolio

diet pepsi

–         Pepsi Next:  launched in 2013 with 30% less sugar than regular Pepsi and no artificial sweeteners. Is specially created for people who don’t like Diet Pepsi’s taste


–         Pepsi Wild Cherry: Introduced in 1988 in order to compete against Cherry Coke that was developed two years earlier

cherry peps

–         Pepsi Free: Developed in 1982 and it is a Caffeine-Free that is today known as Caffeine-Free Pepsi and Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi

caff peps

–         Pepsi Max:  is a low-calorie and sugar-free product and contains more caffeine than Diet Pepsi

pepsi max

–         Pepsi Lime: Introduced in 2005 with lime flavor added to the regular Pepsi

–         Pepsi Raw/Natural: Released in 2008 and contains naturally sourced ingredients with no artificial flavouring, colourings, preservatives and sweeteners. In countries like Mexico and United States is distributed as Pepsi Natural à so Pepsi had the idea of develop a “natural” product that is now improved by Coca Cola Life


–         Pepsi Vanilla: Released in Canada and the U.S. in 2003 in order to attack Vanilla Coke. Today this product is no longer available but Diet Pepsi Vanilla keeps standing in the market


pepsi vai

–        Cherry Vanilla Pepsi: was a relaunch of the Vanilla Pepsi in 2010 with the addition of natural cherry flavor

–         Some Limited Editions: Pepsi Mojito, Tropical Chill and Pepsi Strawberry Burst

–         Pepsi AM: Was launched in 1989 and it had more caffeine than a regular Pepsi, was meant to be a morning drink but it was discontinued in 1990

Posted by: Carolina Castellanos S.


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Feeling cold? Coke zero is here to warm you up!

Christmas is coming and so is the cold.

To promote again one of its products, Coke has launched recently a special website about a Coke Zero sweater generator.

The contest started on November 15th and just ended this last Monday; on December the first. The wining list will be known soon on this website:

This website allows the people from to 50 states of the US you to create their own Christmas sweater customized through the Coke Zero colors.

Then you need to promote you sweater through facebook and other social Medias to get the biggest amount of votes. The 100 top biggest votes ‘numbers will received for free by the 25th of December their customized sweater that has a commercial value around 100$ !


As Alex explained it before, Coke is a lovemark through many angles. Once again, the brand uses its positioning as a lovemark to promote one of its product! And it works.

Indeed, since the website has been created, the first winner has won about 3000 votes . An easy way to keep its customer supporting and belong to its brand!! And a nice gift under the tree on the 25th of December!

Merry Christmas to the 100 winners then!


Written by ChachaF

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How Pepsi and Coke are perceived by consumers.

From a survey we made during these last weeks, we have been able to understand how Coke and Pepsi are perceived by consumers according to different criteria. We only compared the 2 brands so following perceptual maps will only be about the 2 brands.

Let’s just remind the perception of consumers, for the global market in the US, about soft drinks:


Let’s identified how both brands are perceived around 4 main topics:

The brand as a product: What do people prefer about the taste and which of the 2 is the most qualitative one, the most reliable one?



Coke is much more tasty than Pepsi, or at least people clearly prefer the taste of Coke vs Pepsi’s.


The brand as a person: what do people prefer regarding the value and identity of both brands? Which of the 2 brands makes people dream the most?  What are the best perceived values and which one of the 2 brands make people feel passion?



Both brands’culture are not realy clear in people’s mind. 

The brand as an organization: what is the culture of the brand, the universe of the brand,  its engagement through other topics.



Coke is perceived to be a better brand in term of engagement through social or environnemental concerns for example, with a strong brand universe, whereas Pepsi doesn’t seem to have a specific universe that make people dream.

The brand as a symbol:: What brand is a myth and a symbol in people’s mind? Which logo do they remind first?



 Once again, Coke’s logo is much more known than Pepsi’s, as well as regarding the fact that the brand is quite a myth in people’s mind!

As these 4 maps shows up, Coke is clearly better in each topics as a brand in people’s mind. Only the culture of the brand seems not to be really clear for consumers, who might not have understood well the values of both brands, even if these last ones car still make people dream and belong to .

Once again, Coke is the top ranked brand, unfortunately for Pepsi!


Written by: ChachaF

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Brand Identity Prism

To well analyse the dimensions of Brand identity for both companies, we worked on a Kapferer’s Brand-Identity Prism model in order to develop six aspects: physique, personality, culture, relationship, reflection and self-image.

Find below the Coca-Cola Model with some explanation:

Capture d’écran 2013-12-07 à 16.57.22

Physique: Coca-Cola’s bottle is easily recognized even eyes closed. One legend design with a typical colour: RED.

Personality: Open a Coca-Cola is “open Happiness” which is the main slogan of the brand. It means to share good times with people and this everywhere. They have the willingness to bring people sharing moments between each other with the strategy of happiness we can find all around the world.

Culture: Coca-Cola represents a lifestyle, being social when you are drinking a coke. It means to be modern by drinking a model, a leader. Coca-Cola is sharing American values and the American dream.

Self-Image: Coca-Cola is communicating all the time, via all kind of medias. The company always wants to increase its community and push all boundaries.

Reflection: Coca-Cola describes the consumer base as young generation (15-25 years old) with values such as fun, sport or friendship whereas the group target is far broader. It’s a brand for everyone as has to be a TOP brand.

Relationship: When you drink Coca-Cola, you take part of a team. You enter in a specific community and you share values. Coca-Cola is sharing an atmosphere for free and doesn’t need any return.

Find below the Pepsi Model with some explanation: 

Capture d’écran 2013-12-07 à 17.00.27

Physique: Famous logo sphere with 3 different colours aids brand recall

Personality: Pepsi is always doing things with humour and derision. The part of fun is big.

Culture: The brand is using many celebrities to create buzz. As said before, there is a joke culture and the brand is very dynamic and adaptable.

Self-Image: The brand is reaching a cool image via a good communication process. Pepsi is always innovating and adapting its strategy to resist face to Coca-Cola.

Reflection: Via a communication sometimes weird and becoming absurd, Pepsi cheats its public and its community.  But via this way, the company keeps attractiveness. We always think Coca-Cola when we see Pepsi that is a bad true story for the brand.

Relationship: Pepsi is like a “gamer” and offers a young image to the public and its community. By sharing humorist values, the company is sometimes misunderstood but also attractive.

Compare to Coca-Cola, Pepsi is looking for a return from the community. This is the main difference between a LOVEMARK and a follower that is in this case Pepsi, our famous JESTER.

Quentin F.


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French People Vision about those soldiers -_-

In order to have a better understanding about how are perceived Coke and Pepsi brands, we have established a survey regarding the notoriety and quality people can attribute to these brands.

This survey was spread through social networks and 41 people kindly accepted to give their opinions.

Below are our observations.

First of all, we wanted to know if Coke and Pepsi were two automatic quoted brands when people think about Sodas. Guess what. Pepsi is not. Indeed, Coke was quoted in 100% of the case compare to 70% for Pepsi.


Then, we wanted to know if their logo were well known by the audience; they are. Everybody had the good answer so we can say, even with the new Pepsi logo, that Coke and Pepsi don’t meet any confusion or plagiarism issues regarding their logos.

The next and last step was made to better understand what are the main values and what do think people about those two brands. In order do have concrete results and to be able to compare, we ask people to rank some criterion from 0 to 2 and here is what happened:

Concerning Coke, here are the best criteria meeting the higher scores:


No surprises regarding these results.

Quality of products is linked to the taste, sight is here thanks to advertising we can observe everywhere and timelessness represents the importance of Coke for everybody since we are born. Indeed, Coke was already here and will be here after our death and, moreover, myth and symbols are well recognized because we have grown with them during our life (e.g. Red Santa Claus and Polar Bear).

Now let’s have a look to Pepsi higher results:


Well, when you have a look on these results, what can we observe? Coca-Cola is way ahead in a favourable position. Indeed, we have summed up the best results those two brands have regarding the best grade interrogated people could give.

Exclusively French people answered this survey and this criterion can explain the results. As a matter of fact, The Coca-Cole Company is better implanted into the octagonal country than Pepsi. What do you think this survey would look like if it had been done in the U.S?

We are pretty convinced results should be quite different.

Lovemark, Jester.. see you soon!

Alya – Carolina – Charlotte – Alexandre and Quentin


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An endless war is running

We have previously seen how good are those two brands regarding their own global strategy; Being a Lovemark for the Red brand and a Jester for the Blue one. Even if they are strongly playing with different advertising campaigns, sometimes we can feel a bit of irony and fun regarding “war” campaigns.

I am not going to say we can analyse this war as a boxing game because it is obvious that they are not responding to each other every time. Yet, we can tell the Jester is a bit more aggressive regarding this battlefield trend.

As Charlotte has shown in its “Halloween article”, the war is still running.


And this is running for a long moment.

Here is a communication campaign from the 1st April by Pepsi:


Below an example of Coke responding to Pepsi printed campaign:


More than printed campaigns, the best way to explain this endless war is to find street marketing example, where the fight is really happening:


Above you can observe some clever campaigns all coming from Pepsi. All of them are making fun of Coke explaining how Pepsi is needed, demanded and available everywhere. You can also notice that their sense of humour can reach the top by removing Coke distributing machine from the street.

As I told you, Pepsi is really more aggressive and Coke just answers back. Then, Pepsi go further by using symbols and archetypes that Coke is using for a long time:

The Polar Bear:


And even Santa Claus:!223315E4-AC09-49A2-B761-9F84A5F17DB0

Speaking about videos, below you can watch some funny and famous videos that Pepsi did regarding this war:

Here is a boy who starts buying a coke, then another one in order to reach the Pepsi button.

Two trucks drivers are meeting and trying to share a moment not thinking about rivalry. (Of course it last only for a few minutes)

Here is a parody of the godfather.

Most of these videos became quickly viral and the two companies don’t need to keep this war running anymore, communities do it for them. As a matter of fact, you can find a lot of videos, pictures, graffiti, drawing, etc… illustrating this war and made by people from all around the world.

Thanks to all these campaigns, we can tell that even being on the same market with different marketing strategies such as being a Lovemark or a Jester, the endless market shares war is still running and all means are good to reach objectives.

Fortunately, sometimes they are making the peace and can show people they can live in harmony:


Alexandre QUEMERE


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